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Friday, 17 August 2012

Role of Print Media


Today, in this ultra modern world, the role of media and particularly of print media has been augmenting day by day. It has been serving as a vigilant watchdog of India. Print Media has created an awareness among the people regarding their rights and duties. Print Media has been nicknamed as ‘News Monger’ or the Fourth Estate. We can update ourselves just by going through the morning newspaper, getting each and every kind of news from every nook and comer of the world. It is due to the effect of the Print media that people associated with robberies, thefts, murders, rapes, drugs and alcoholism are working in an apprehension of being caught and recognized. They are now constantly under fear of being caught by the law enforcing agencies.
There has been a worldwide growth of the print media even after the emergence of the electronic media. There has been an increase in the circulation of newspapers around the world even after the emergence of electronic media and the internet. The newspapers do play a very important role in the working of any democracy. Our Constitution too grants us the Right to Freedom of Expression which is manifested, in free press in our country. In a democracy, newspapers are the best way of educating people politically and socially. They play a decisive role not only in updating the public but also in formulating a well-balanced public opinion. The public reads about the current events, interprets them and learns to intelligently participate in the political, social and economic affairs of the country. Print media also works as a bridge between the government and the people. 
They are a powerful vehicle for propaganda. The common man immensely gains from the newspapers so that he can formulate his own opinions, ideas and judgments about the issues that press the current political, economic and social scenario.
Newspapers also reflect public opinion thus formed through letters to the editor which are usually published in a separate column. Moreover, print media provides great incentive to business by large number of advertisements on a variety of things as a house on sale, shops, electronic goods, stationary, cloth stores, glass ware, crockery shops etc. Matrimonial advertisements, job-opportunities, obituaries are all advertised through the print media.
The Print Media, if used unwisely, for satisfying personal greed, and without any thought towards personal responsibility can be extremely harmful for the health of any society. If used so, instead of providing nourishment to the society it can function as a parasite and destroy the essentials of the society. They can break instead of creating, leaving the society hollow and fragile.
People involved in this profession should realize the massive responsibility they shoulder and sacredness of the duty that they perform. They should avoid personal bias and prejudice to cloud their good sense. They should rise above mischievous propaganda and blackmailing in order to serve the society better. Instead, they should try to combat social evils, communal forces and also keep the government on its toes, committed to its promises. It should try to make people politically conscious and keep patriotism and national pride alive in the people.
Print Media should also try to broaden the public view by generating interest and awareness about international events. Thus, we see that despite the rise of electronic media to prominence, it has failed to dislodge print media from its vantage position. Print Media still remains the most common means of creating public awareness and it will continue to be so even in the times to come. Hence, with time we need to be more responsible, discursive and vigilant as readers so as to discourage irresponsible press and create conducive environment for the formation of a responsible and mature Print Media.
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Tuesday, 14 August 2012

Mahatma Gandhi : Champion of the Downtrodden


In India, the Khilafat Movement and the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre brought Mahatma Gandhi into prominence. His non-cooperation campaigns of 1921, his Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and finally his ‘Quit India’ movement in 1942 along with the developments back home forced the British to grant  independence and sovereignty to India. In this process, not a single action using force and violence can he cited which Gandhiji or one of his millions of followers indulged in. The splinter groups in the Indian National Congress who did not agree on this method of achieving independence and thought violence to be the only method leading to the country’s freedom broke away from Gandhiji and the Congress, but Gandhiji did not compromise his ideals at the expense of expediency. For him the end justified the means and since the end of India’s independence was something noble and unique, it had to be achieved through noble and peaceful means.
Gandhiji was basically a social reformer who spiritualised the arena of politics. He fought hard to uplift the downtrodden masses of India. The under-privileged, the Harijans and members of other scheduled and back ward classes were equal to Gandhiji. He championed the movement to remove untouchability and exploitation from the country. To identify himself with the poverty-stricken masses of India, he wore the dress of a common man. He always travelled in the third class. To give a vocational bias to our education, he evolved the Nai Talim. Drinking, he held, was an evil akin to or even worse than prostitution. He highlighted it in all its gory after-effects on the person, the family and the society and gave a call to all Indians to give up drinking as a habit. All the inequalities in India, whether casteism, capitalism or any other issue, he stands out to the real hero of all indians.
This short description shows that truly "Mahatma Gandhi" is the champion of Downtrodden.

Thursday, 9 August 2012

Indian Society (Issues & Problems)


India is a vast peninsula with a total land area of about 33 million square kilometres, a population exceeding 122 crores. India's social structure is a unique blend of religions, cultures and racial groups. The history of India is a long long history. India was known as Bharatavasha which stretched from Hemalayan to sea. With the gradual march of time India bore the brunt of foreign invasions. The Persian, Greeks, Kushans, Indo-Greeks, Hunas, Muslims and the British occupied this land.The left the foot-prints of their culture on the sands of time.Indian culture absorbed all the influences and reflected its own uniqueness.
Origin of Indian Society
Our land, which is known today as 'Bharat' or 'India' was regarded as Bharatavarsha in the past. It was named after 'Bharata' the mighty legendaryhero and son of king Yushmanta and queen Shakuntala.
The persians and the Greeks extended their sway upto river Indus or Sindhu. Since persians pronounced the letter 'S' as 'H' they pronounced the word 'Sindhu' as 'Hindu'. In old persian epigraphs India was depicted as 'Hindus' or people of the India.
India was known as 'Hindustan' in medieval time. Sultans of Delhi and the Mughal emperor called this land as 'Hindustan'. A new change came to this land when the British conquest India. The British officers called this land as 'India'. From that time 'Bharat' or 'Hindustan' became India.
Composition of Indian Society
India's social structure is a unique blend of religions, cultures and racial groups. Historically, India has been a hospitable land to numerous immigrants and invaders from distant parts of Asia and Europe. The cultural patterns of these alien settlers have over the past many centuries been interwoven with the native culture to produce India's glorious cultural heritage.

India is a country where all the world’s major religions are found. Among the major religions in India are : Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddism, Zoroastrianism and Animism. Each of these main religions has a number of sects of its own.
1.  Hinduism : Majority of the people of India are Hindus. Hinduism is an amalgamation of Indo-Aryan, Dravidian and Pre-Dravidian religious elements. According to 2011 census, nearly 89.6% of Indian population are Hindus.
Hinduism contains a number of sects such as the Lingayat, the Kabirpanthi, the Sakta, the Radhaswamy, the Satnami, the Brahmo Samaj, the Arya Samaj and many others. Hinduism provides a solid base for national unity through common beliefs, festivals, customs and traditions. The followers of Hinduism, believe in the doctrine of ‘Karma’, ‘Dharma’, rebirth, immortality of soul, renunciation and salvation.
2.  Islam : Islam, the religion of the Muslims, originated in Arabia. It entered India towards the end of the 12th century A.D. The Muslim rulers in India patronised it. Most of the Indian Muslims are converts from Hinduism or Buddhism.
Muslims in India constitute nearly 10% of total population. In 1941, in the undivided India, Muslim constituted nearly 24% of the total population. But, even now, India continues to have a large Muslim population.
Islam doesn’t believe in idol worship. It professes the fatalistic acceptance of Allah’s will and considers Prophet Mohammad as the greatest prophet. The ‘Quran’ sacred book of Islam, ordains five primary duties of a true and devout Muslim, such as belief in God (Allah), prayers of five times a day, the giving of alms, a month’s fast every year and a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in the life time of Muslim.
3.  Christianity : Christians in India are scattered all over the country, but they are mostly found in Kerala where they constitute nearly one-fourth of the State’s population. At present 20.5 million people or 2.43% of the total population practise Christianity in India.
There are mainly three sects in India. They are (i) Romo-Syrians, (ii) Roman Catholics, (iii) Protestants.
4.  Sikhism : Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak in the 16th century A.D. . The Sikhs were a part of Vaishnava sect of the Hinduism before they converted their religion. Sikhs are nearer to Hindus than the Muslims in their religious beliefs. Sikhs are mainly found in Punjab and the adjoining states. They form about 2% of our population.
5.  Buddhism : Buddhism originated in India during the 6th century B.C. Gautam, the Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. Buddists are found in Sikkim and the adjoining hills. They are also found in Maharastra. The number of Buddhists in India is very meagre and it represents only less than 1% of the total population.
6.  Jainism : Lord Mahavir established Jainism in India in the 6th century B.C. It is very close to Hinduism in its religious doctrines. They represent only small portion i.e. 0.45% of our total population. Jains are mainly urban people. They are found in town and cities of Punjab, U.P., Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharastra.
Jains are divided into three sects, namely; (1) The Digambaras, (2) The Swetambara, (3) The Dhundias.
7.  Zoroastrianism or Parsi Religion : Zoroastrians are the follower of Zoroster. They came to India from Persia in the 7th century A.D. in order to escape from the forcible conversions to Islam. Their number in India is neglible. They are about one lakh in total, half of which live in the city of Bombay (Mumbai) alone. They are mainly urban. They are the most literate and are on the top of the economic ladder of India.
8.  Animism : Animism is mainly a tribal faith. In India, there are about 30 million people who believe in Animism. It is a very primitive religion, according to which man is believed to be surrounded by a number of impersonal ghostly powers. These powers are said to reside in rocks, rivers, trees stones etc.. By propiating these powers the tribals think themselves make free from diseases and difficulties.
          Thus, from the above discussion it is found that India is a land of numerous religions. Today, India strives to integrate its people into a great nation on secular lines.
        We are covered with society and our customs, what do you think about this topic, give me reply.


Sunday, 5 August 2012

Social Defence


Introduction

Social scientists should give no policy advice, but should rather point out, publicly, the shortcomings of policies- Morton A. Kaplan [and Philip Green] et al., Strategic Thinking and its Moral Implications, University of Chicago Center for Policy Study, 1973, p.67.
Social defence in common parlance means the protection of society against crime through a systematically organized and coherent action by both the State, civil society people’s group. Though this term has long been in use in the criminological and penological literature, the modes and modalities of achieving its inherent objective have been shifting with the advancement in social sciences and behavioural disciplines.  Even today, because of the complexity of issues involved, it has not been possible to evolve a wholly satisfactory theoretical framework for policy formulation and programme development in this field.  
Whereas the initial interpretation of the notion of social defence implied the protection of society through the repression of crime, its modern conception visualizes a system that emphasizes control of crime through social defence. Therefore social defence not only endeavours to perfect the system that protects society against criminal acts but also goes much beyond the ambit of criminal law in extending measures to forestall criminogenic situations and to treat offenders through appropriate remedial, educational and rehabilitative services. 
Apart from its meaning in criminology as a strategy for crime prevention and control, the term has now a wider meaning and social defence refers not to an elaborate school of thought but to a vigorous movement sustained by a variety of organizations sharing certain values and methods in dealing with phenomena of crime, in wisely dealing with a dangerous offender, or the efficient protection of society accomplished without persistently violating the offenders’ rights. Hence social defence has acquired a paradigmatic character over a period of time. It connotes several meanings and denotes several names. It has the narrow and the broad definitions. 
In a narrow sense social defence is a nonviolent alternative to military defence. It is based on widespread protest, persuasion, noncooperation and intervention in order to oppose military aggression or political repression. It uses methods such as boycotts, refusals to obey, strikes, demonstrations and setting up alternative government. Social defence is nonviolent defence of the vital features of society — including human rights, local autonomy, and participation - against all oppressive forces. There are actually several different names that all mean about the same thing. The main ones are social defence, nonviolent defence, civilian-based defence and civilian defence.
In a broad sense social defence is nonviolent community resistance to aggression. This includes defence against exploitation, injustice, subjugation and discrimination like defence against male violence against women. Social defence often refers to nonviolent defence based on grassroots initiatives. Those favouring the broad definition can readily provide examples from struggles by feminists, environmentalists, peace activists, minorities and umpteen others.